This working paper analyzes the influence of district superintendents on student achievement and the characteristics of effective superintendents. Through a meta-analysis of research findings, the paper identifies five district-level leadership responsibilities that have statistically significant correlations with average student academic achievement. All five of these responsibilities relate to setting and keeping districts focused on teaching and learning goals.
Waters, J.T. & Marzano, R. (2006). School district leadership that works: the effect of superintendent leadership on student achievement. Denver, CO: McREL International.